How does solar power work

About the author : Tony Lopes

Tony Lopes is an expert digital marketer who has worked across competitive industries since 2003. His broad experience covers SEO, Content Marketing, PPC, Email Marketing and Marketing Analytics. He works with renewable energy clients across the world and lives in Johannesburg, South Africa with his wife, daughters and Rhodesian Ridgebacks.


In the quest for cleaner, more sustainable sources of energy, solar power continues to make impressive strides. But how does this ingenious technology convert sunlight into usable electricity?

Buckle up as we embark on a journey to explore the fascinating mechanics of solar power.

How does solar power work? Watch to see a summary of this article

The Basics of Solar Energy

Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the sun that is harnessed using a range of technologies. This celestial energy has fueled life on Earth for millennia, and now it’s powering our homes, offices, and even cities.

The Photovoltaic Effect

The foundation of solar power lies in the photovoltaic effect. This is the process by which photons (light particles) knock electrons loose from atoms, generating a flow of electricity.

Silicon, a semiconducting material, is typically used in this process due to its unique chemical properties.

The photovoltaic (PV) effect is a physical and chemical phenomenon that’s crucial to solar energy conversion. This process involves the creation of an electric current or voltage in a material when it’s exposed to light. It’s named after the measurement of radiant energy, photons. When photons hit a PV semiconductor, they can either get absorbed, reflected, or pass right through. Those absorbed photons provide their energy to electrons, exciting them into a higher energy state. These energized electrons can move and induce an electric current. This is why silicon, an element with a crystalline structure, is often used. It has an atomic structure that allows it to exist in a stable state, ready to accept and pass along this energy.

An everyday example of the photovoltaic effect is a solar-powered calculator. These devices typically have a small solar panel (photovoltaic cell) built into them. When you use these calculators under the sun or any light source, photons from the light source hit the photovoltaic cell and displace the electrons. This creates an electric current that powers the calculator, showcasing the practical application of the photovoltaic effect.

Solar Panels

Solar panels are the workhorses of a solar power system. They consist of numerous individual solar cells, each made up of layers of silicon. When sunlight hits a solar cell, it excites the electrons, causing them to move and create an electric current.

A solar panel, or module, is essentially a collection of solar cells linked together. These cells are often made from layers of silicon because of its semiconducting properties. The construction of a solar cell usually involves two types of silicon – n-type, with extra electrons, and p-type, with extra spaces for electrons, called holes. When these two types of silicon come into contact, an electric field is created at the junction. When sunlight hits the cell, it excites electrons, pushing them from the silicon layers into the electric field, and causing them to move in a specific direction. This movement of electrons is what we call an electric current.

An example of solar panels in action could be a solar-powered home. On the roof of such a house, you would see a collection of solar panels, each made up of many solar cells. During daylight, the panels absorb sunlight and convert it into electricity through the process we’ve just described. This electricity can be used to power appliances, systems, and devices in the home, from refrigerators and ovens to televisions and computers.

Solar Inverters

The current produced by solar panels is in direct current (DC) form. However, our homes and businesses use alternating current (AC). Enter the solar inverter, a device that transforms DC into AC, making the electricity usable in everyday applications.

There are different types of inverters available, such as string inverters, central inverters, and microinverters, each with its own set of advantages and suited to different kinds of solar installations.

Solar inverters are a crucial component of any solar installation. For instance, in a solar-powered electric vehicle charging station, the electricity produced by the solar panels is in DC form. However, the car’s battery requires AC. Here, a solar inverter would transform the DC electricity from the panels into AC electricity for charging the car.

Solar Batteries

Solar batteries are a crucial component for off-grid solar systems and grid-tied systems looking for backup power. They store excess power produced by the solar panels, which can be used when the panels aren’t producing electricity, like during night-time or on cloudy days.

This happens through a chemical process within the battery that allows it to store energy provided by the inverter. When the solar panels aren’t producing electricity – during the night or cloudy days – the battery can then discharge this stored energy for use. Different types of solar batteries, like lithium-ion, lead-acid, and flow batteries, offer varying levels of efficiency, lifespan, and cost-effectiveness.

For instance, in remote areas where grid electricity is unavailable, houses might rely entirely on solar power. During the day, solar panels produce electricity, and the excess is stored in solar batteries. At night or during cloudy days, these houses can use the stored energy in the batteries to power their lights, appliances, and other electrical systems.

Solar Charge Controllers

A solar charge controller manages the power going into the solar battery, preventing overcharging and enhancing battery life. It ensures the battery operates within its optimal voltage, safeguarding the overall health of the solar power system.

Solar charge controllers serve as regulators in a solar power system. Suppose you have a solar-powered cabin in the woods. You would likely have a solar charge controller as part of your solar setup. The controller maintains the voltage and current coming from the solar panels at the optimal level for the batteries to absorb. It protects the batteries from overcharging during the day when the panels are producing more electricity than the batteries can store. Conversely, at night, it prevents the batteries from discharging back through the solar panels.

Grid-Tied Systems vs. Off-Grid Systems

Grid-tied solar systems are connected to the local electricity grid, whereas off-grid systems are standalone and rely solely on solar power and battery storage. Both have their merits and demerits and are suited for different applications.

To understand the difference between grid-tied and off-grid systems, let’s consider two different households. The first house, located in a suburban neighborhood, has a grid-tied solar power system. During the day, the solar panels on the roof produce electricity. Any excess power they don’t use is fed back into the local power grid, earning the household credits through net metering.

Meanwhile, a second house located in a remote area operates an off-grid solar power system. They can’t rely on the power grid. Instead, they have a more robust solar setup, complete with solar batteries for energy storage. They need to carefully manage their energy consumption to match their system’s output and stored energy.

Net Metering

Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar power system owners for the electricity they add to the grid. It’s an economic benefit that makes solar power a lucrative energy option, encouraging more people to embrace this renewable energy source.

To visualize net metering, imagine a household with a grid-tied solar power system. On a sunny day, their solar panels produce more electricity than they need. Through net metering, the excess power is fed back into the grid, effectively turning their electric meter backward. The power they contribute is subtracted from their electricity bill, leading to cost savings. In some cases, if they contribute more power than they use, they may even receive a credit on their account.

The Efficiency of Solar Power

The efficiency of a solar power system depends on several factors, including the quality of the panels, the angle of installation, and local weather conditions. Over time, with the right measures, the efficiency of these systems can be significantly improved.

Take, for instance, a solar farm in the desert, where high levels of sunlight are a given. Even in this optimal setting, not all of the sunlight that hits the panels is converted into electricity. Factors such as the angle of the sun, the cleanliness of the panels, and the efficiency of the solar cells themselves play a role. However, technological advancements and proper system maintenance can help optimize the amount of power generated.

Maintenance of Solar Power Systems

Solar power systems require minimal maintenance, thanks to their sturdy design and minimal moving parts. Regular cleaning and periodic professional inspections can keep the system running at its peak for many years.

Consider a large-scale solar power plant. Here, maintenance is an ongoing task. The plant might employ robotic cleaning systems to keep the solar panels clean, as dust and debris can affect the panels’ ability to absorb sunlight effectively. Furthermore, routine inspections would be carried out to check the integrity of the system and ensure that all components, including panels, inverters, and wiring, are in good working condition.

Future Innovations in Solar Power

The realm of solar power is constantly evolving, with innovative technologies on the horizon. From perovskite solar cells to solar skins and solar fabrics, these advancements promise to make solar power more accessible and efficient.

The future of solar power is bright with innovative technologies pushing the boundaries of this renewable energy source. For instance, perovskite solar cells are a new, efficient, and potentially cheaper type of solar cell.

Solar skins are aesthetic solutions that blend solar panels with the roof, making them nearly invisible.

Solar fabrics involve incorporating thin film solar cells into fabric materials, opening a world of possibilities from wearable technology to portable energy sources. As these technologies advance and become more accessible, solar power is poised to play an even larger role in our clean energy future.

As for the future, we can look at cutting-edge projects and startups for examples. For instance, Oxford PV, a company spun out from the University of Oxford, is pioneering the use of perovskite solar cells, promising to boost the efficiency of traditional solar panels significantly. SolarWindow Technologies is developing electricity-generating windows by coating them with ultra-thin layers of solar cells, exemplifying the innovative use of solar skins. And finally, imagine a tent made of solar fabric that could charge your devices while camping. Companies like PowerFilm Solar are making this a reality by developing lightweight and flexible solar panels that can be integrated into fabric.

Economic Benefits of Solar Power

When thinking about solar power, economic benefits are often a key consideration. For instance, a business that chooses to install solar panels on its rooftop might find that its electricity bills decrease substantially. Over time, these savings can offset the initial cost of the system. In some areas, there might even be incentives like tax credits or rebates for businesses that adopt solar power, making the investment even more appealing.

Take the example of Walmart, one of the largest corporate users of solar power. As of 2020, the company had over 500 locations with solar panel installations. By harnessing the power of the sun, Walmart has significantly reduced its energy costs and furthered its commitment to sustainability. Their solar initiatives, coupled with local and federal incentives, have contributed to a notable decrease in operational costs, showing how a business can financially benefit from solar power.

The Impact of Solar Power on the Environment

To truly understand the environmental impact of solar power, we might consider a large city that has made a significant shift toward this renewable energy source. The solar panels atop buildings and homes, and perhaps even a solar farm outside the city, produce clean electricity daily. This reduces the city’s reliance on fossil fuels, which in turn decreases greenhouse gas emissions. The air becomes cleaner, benefiting everyone’s health and contributing to a more sustainable urban environment.

Consider the city of San Diego, California, which is known for its commitment to renewable energy. As of 2020, solar power met around 20% of the city’s electricity demand. By transitioning to solar energy, San Diego has reduced its reliance on fossil fuels, thereby reducing its carbon emissions. The shift to solar energy contributes to improved air quality and creates a healthier environment for its residents.

The Scalability of Solar Power

Scalability is another strength of solar power, as seen in the wide range of applications, from small gadgets to vast solar farms. On one end of the spectrum, you might have a solar-powered watch, using a tiny solar panel to keep the battery charged. On the other end, there’s the Noor Complex in Morocco, one of the largest solar farms in the world, spreading across thousands of acres and generating enough electricity to power a city.

For a demonstration of solar power’s scalability, think about a common household item like a solar-powered garden light. It uses a tiny solar panel to charge a small battery during the day that lights up a LED lamp at night. Contrast this with the Bhadla Solar Park in India, one of the world’s largest solar parks, spreading over 14,000 acres. This solar park has the capacity to generate 2,245 Megawatts of electricity, enough to power hundreds of thousands of homes.

Job Creation in the Solar Industry

The solar industry is also a major contributor to job creation. As demand for solar installations grows, so does the need for skilled professionals to install, maintain, and improve these systems. A city that decides to invest heavily in solar power could see job growth in various sectors – from manufacturing and installation to sales and customer service, not to mention the potential for research and development roles in innovating new solar technologies.

The solar industry has been a significant source of job creation in the United States. According to The Solar Foundation, the solar industry employed over 230,000 Americans in 2020, representing a 44% increase since 2014. In states like California and Texas, the solar industry has created jobs across the value chain, including manufacturing, installation, project development, sales and distribution.

Solar Power in Remote Locations

Solar power can be a game-changer for remote locations where extending the power grid is impractical or too costly. Consider a remote research station in the Arctic. Here, a solar power system could be an ideal solution during the summer months, when daylight hours are extended. The station could use solar panels to power their equipment, store excess energy for cloudier days, and reduce their reliance on diesel generators.

In the rural parts of sub-Saharan Africa, where grid electricity is often not available, solar power provides an affordable and accessible solution. Companies like M-KOPA have made solar systems available to households in these areas. Customers can pay for their solar systems over time, using mobile money. Such systems usually include a solar panel, battery, lights, phone charging, and even a solar-powered TV.


Solar power is a brilliant confluence of nature’s bounty and human ingenuity. By understanding how it works, we can better appreciate its value and potential in driving our transition to a sustainable, clean energy future.

Understanding the inner workings of solar power is like watching an intricate dance of science and technology. With ongoing advancements and wider adoption, we’re witnessing the dawn of a solar revolution that promises a brighter, more sustainable future for all. So, the next time you bask in the sunlight, remember that this ancient energy source is powering an exciting new era in human history.

Solar power’s versatility, coupled with its environmental and economic benefits, makes it a compelling choice for our energy needs. As we continue to innovate and push the boundaries of this technology, one can only imagine what the future holds. From a humble rooftop installation to a sprawling solar farm, every step we take brings us closer to a cleaner, more sustainable world powered by the sun.

Solar power is already shaping our world, from small remote communities to major corporations and cities. As we further harness this abundant and renewable source of energy, we move closer to a future where clean, sustainable power is available for everyone. The power of the sun, once worshipped as divine, is still very much a beacon of hope for our collective future.

About the author : Tony Lopes

Tony Lopes is an expert digital marketer who has worked across competitive industries since 2003. His broad experience covers SEO, Content Marketing, PPC, Email Marketing and Marketing Analytics. He works with renewable energy clients across the world and lives in Johannesburg, South Africa with his wife, daughters and Rhodesian Ridgebacks.

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